Nobel Peace Prize
The Norwegian Nobel Institute.
Original name Nobels fredspris
Description Prize a major contribution to the peace
Organizer Norwegian Nobel Committee
Creation date 1901
Current recipient Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Official Website http://nobelprize.org/
The Nobel peace prize “personality with the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the meeting and the spread of progress for peace” according to the will, defined by will of Alfred Nobel . This includes the struggle for peace, human rights, humanitarian, freedom.
The price of the year can be shared between two or three individuals or institutions who have rendered great services to humanity through diplomatic channels. He was awarded for the first time in 1901 .
No compensation was awarded during the two world wars (except in 1917 and 1945 ) and years when no candidate was unanimous.
First Western, the origin of the candidates has gradually spread around the world. The Nobel Peace now has a special political significance, some prices having a value of disavowal of authoritarian governments like that of Aung San Suu Kyi in 1991 vis-à-vis the Burmese junta or that of Liu Xiaobo in 2010 against the Chinese government.
Some appointments had particular resonance [ref. needed] such as Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 who was strongly contested because Roosevelt was “militaristic” 1 . We may also mention that the anti-Nazi German journalist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935 .
As a whole, especially the Nobel went to historical names of humanitarian action, the fight against political oppression or the defense of such egalitarian law that Albert Schweitzer , Martin Luther King , Mother Teresa and Aung San Suu Kyi .
As decided by Alfred Nobel , the Nobel Laureates of Peace are chosen by a committee appointed by the parliament of Norway , the other Nobel prizes are selected by the academic institution Swedish . Moreover, unlike these, presented at a royal ceremony on December 10 in Stockholm , the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo since Sweden and Norway fell in 1901 the Crown even before the divorce of these two countries in 1905 , because of this separation, an agreement was reached on the Nobel Prize and the Norwegian inherited the Peace. It has a total of 10 million Swedish crowns (just over one million euros ).
In the world of yesterday, memories of a European ( Die Welt von Gestern. Erinnerungen eines Europäers ), Stefan Zweig says that Florence Nightingale would have been the source of the founding of the award in convincing Alfred Nobel to repair “the evil he had caused with his dynamite. ”
And appointments modus operandi
Nominations for this award are the result of reasoned and detailed proposals, issued by members of Congress National Assemblies or legislative circles of university professors in the field of geopolitics , of law and political science , former Prize winners, judges specialized in international law and special advisers of the Norwegian Committee created especially for this branch of the Nobel. Each year, several hundred proposals, 199 are held before a series of preliminary applications is submitted to the jury that set prices in the spring with a final list of five names or group names and structures linked by a common diplomatic action. The winners are elected or after debates, discussions and votes ended in October . Their identity is revealed during a formal press conference in the old city of Oslo . Appointments are normally required to be kept secret for 50 years. Many of them are now known and publicized two , including those between 1901 and 1955 3 . When some of these lists were revealed to the press, we discovered that Adolf Hitler was a time appointed in 1939 by Erik Brandt, a member of the Swedish Parliament, before it is reversed its decision a few days later 4 . Other such proposals were submitted to the Committee such as Benito Mussolini (in 1935 ) or Joseph Stalin (in 1945 and 1948 ) 5 .
Critical and controversial
The 14 th Dalai Lama and Desmond Tutu , Photo of Carey Linde. 2004
Unlike other awards, retrospective, highlighting the work of a life in science or literature , the Nobel Peace Prize has often distinguished a particular action without it being necessarily subjected to the test of time: that of a person or structure which has an international conflict resolution and consensus developed peacefully. Indeed, several prizes were awarded without taking into account the past of the winner or his policies and his actions intermediaries often in contradiction with the definition of the price. This has largely recovered the credibility or legitimacy of the distinction when she returned to such figures as Theodore Roosevelt , Anwar Sadat , Menachem Begin , Shimon Peres , Yitzhak Rabin , Yasser Arafat , Lê Đức Tho , Henry Kissinger and Barack Obama : that controversial choice as sulfur. Consequently, since 2005 , the Nobel Committee publicly stated that the price would never return to persons, groups or organizations who have committed their lives to the service of human rights , promotion of the democratic model as well as defense lines of the diplomacy 6 .
The other major criticism against the Nobel jury for the notable omission in its ranking of individuals whose contributions to peace have been universally welcomed. The list includes the great forgotten Mahatma Gandhi whose eviction was widely criticized, including in the public statements of several members 7 , 8 . In addition, three Nobel Prizes have been awarded in recent years to a former president, a former vice president and a sitting president of the United States ( Jimmy Carter , Al Gore and Barack Obama after just nine months of Presidency ) when that country has a strong military engagement outside its borders.
The Committee has acknowledged having named Mahatma Gandhi in 1937 , 1938 , 1939 , 1947 and, finally, a few days before his assassination in January 1948 . In 1948 , he refused to award a prize, saying that “there was no suitable living candidate”. The omission of Gandhi was publicly and universally regretted by later members of the Norwegian committee. Later, when the 14 th Dalai Lama was awarded in 1989 , the Committee Chair said that the decision was “in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.” 9 . The last and important criticism of the Nobel goes to the effectiveness and the actual value of this award when she returned to personalities whose diplomatic efforts were judged as “vain” and “sterile”, like the Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter , the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan or former director of the International Agency of Atomic Energy : Mohamed El Baradei .
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm ( Sweden ) and died on 10 December 1896 at San Remo ( Italy ), is a chemist , industrial and weapons manufacturer Swedish . Inventor of dynamite , he owned defense firm Bofors . In his will he bequeathed his vast fortune to create the Nobel Prize . The chemical element nobelium was named in his honor.
Summary [ hide ]
2 Notes and references
3 See also
3.1 External Links
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the third son of Immanuel Nobel ( one thousand eight hundred and one – 1 872 ) and Andriette Ahlsell Nobel. Member of the Nobel family , he is descended from Olof Rudbeck ( 1,630 – one thousand seven hundred and two ), one of Sweden’s most famous scientists of the xvii th century.
At age 9, he moved with his family to St. Petersburg where his father, who later invented the plywood modern, up a company sea mines . At the age of 18, Alfred participated in the United States , where he studied chemistry for four years and worked for a short time with John Ericsson . In 1859 , the direction of his father’s business is left to his brother Ludvig Nobel ( 1831 – 1888 ), who later founded, Russia, the Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel and Branobel, becoming one of the richest men and most powerful of Russia .
For centuries, the gunpowder remained the only powerful explosive. In 1846 the discovery is nitrocellulose , and then in 1847 by Ascanio Sobrero , the nitroglycerin . In 1850, Alfred Nobel spent a year in Paris to study under the direction of Théophile-Jules Pelouze , a colleague of Ascanio Sobrero . Returned to Sweden with his father, Alfred is dedicated from 1862 entirely to the study of explosives and in particular to the use and marketing of secure nitroglycerin . In 1871 , he founded KemaNobel, a business originally from Akzo Nobel . Several explosions took place in the plant family of Heleneborg, one particularly disastrous on 3 September 1864 , cost the lives of five people including Emil, the younger brother of Alfred.
So he begins work at making use of nitroglycerine less dangerous, and is the first to successfully control its explosive power. Nobel discovered that when nitroglycerin is mixed with an inert solid and absorbent material called kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth), it becomes much safer to transport and handle, the explosion requiring the use of a detonator . He patented this invention on 25 November 1867 , under the name of dynamite . He uses it for the first time in a quarry in Redhill, in England ( Surrey ).
Alfred Nobel lived in Paris from 1875 and in 1881 he acquired the old castle of Sevran in Seine-et-Oise (now in Seine-Saint-Denis ). In the French laboratory, he invented a new explosive power far greater than dynamite. Composed of nitroglycerin (93%) and collodion (7%), the “extra Nobel dynamite” (patent 1875 ) is simply dynamite dynamite gum or plastic (not to be confused with the plastic which is a mixture of hexogen and / or with an oil of PETN and a plasticizer).
This is the erroneous publication of a French newspaper obituary prematurely condemning his invention of dynamite in 1888 who decided to leave a better picture of him in the world after his death. The obituary stated: “The merchant of death is dead. Dr. Alfred Nobel, who made his fortune by finding a way to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday ” 1 .
In 1890 , Alfred Nobel left France to settle in his villa near the Mediterranean , at San Remo in Italy . On 27 November 1895 , the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris , Nobel puts an end to his will, bequeathing his entire fortune to the creation of the Nobel Prize .
He died of a stroke on 10 December 1896 in San Remo and is buried at Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm .
A chemical element is the set of atoms characterized by a defined number of protons in their nucleus . This number, denoted Z , is the atomic number of the chemical element. Indeed, the chemical properties of atoms are determined by their electronic structure, which depends on the number of protons in their nuclei, so that all atoms having the same atomic number share the same chemical properties. However, atoms of the same chemical element may have a variable number of neutrons in their nuclei, so-called isotopes .
The hydrogen , the carbon , the nitrogen , the oxygen , are chemical elements, as well as iron , the brass , the silver , the gold , etc.. Each is conventionally designated by a chemical symbol , such as H , C , N , O , or Fe , Cu , Ag , In , etc.. A total of 118 chemical elements have been observed to date, with atomic numbers ranging from 1 to 118 . Of these, 94 elements are found in the natural environment, and 80 elements have at least one stable isotope : those of atomic numbers less than or equal to 82 except for items 43 and 61 .
The chemical elements can combine them in chemical reactions to form countless chemical compounds . Thus, the water resulting from the combination of oxygen and hydrogen in molecules of chemical formula H 2 O – two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. In different operating conditions, the oxygen and hydrogen may give different compounds, eg hydrogen peroxide or hydrogen peroxide of the formula H 2 O 2 – two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. Conversely, each chemical compound can be decomposed into separate chemical elements, for example water can be electrolyzed in oxygen and hydrogen .
A pure substance composed of atoms of the same chemical element is called a simple body , and can not be decomposed into other distinct elements, what differentiates a body of a simple chemical compound . The oxygen is a chemical element, but the gas commonly known as oxygen is an element whose exact name is oxygen , the formula O 2 , to distinguish it from the ozone , the formula O 3 , which is also a simple body; the ozone and oxygen are allotropes of the element oxygen . The standard state of a chemical element is the single body of which the standard enthalpy of formation is the lowest in the normal temperature and pressure , by convention equal to zero.
A chemical element can not be transformed into another element by a chemical reaction , only a nuclear reaction called transmutation can be achieved. This definition was made essentially for the first time by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier in 1789 1 , 2 .
Abundance of the ten most common elements in our galaxy , estimated by spectroscopy 3
A total of 118 elements were observed in 1 st quarter 2012. “Observed” may simply mean that we have identified at least one atom of that element in a reasonably safe: thus, only three atoms of element 118 were detected to date, and indirectly through the products their decay chain . The IUPAC has validated that the first 112 elements by atomic number increasing 4 , it endorsed the names in English and the chemical symbols international, is the latest element 112, called copernicium since 19 February 2010 5 , whose chemical symbol Cn .
Only 94 elements are observed on Earth in the natural environment, among which six are present only in traces – the technetium 43 Tc, the Promethium 61 Pm, the astatine 85 At the Francium 87 Fr, the neptunium 93 Np and plutonium 94 Pu. All these elements were also detected in the area , and the californium 98 Cf 6 .
The other 22 elements observed that there are neither on Earth nor in space have been produced artificially by nuclear fusion from lighter elements.
According to the standard model of cosmology , the relative abundance of isotopes of the 95 natural elements in the universe consisted of four phenomena 7 :
the primordial nucleosynthesis for three (or four) first elements: hydrogen , helium , lithium or beryllium ,
the stellar nucleosynthesis for twenty-two items, to iron ,
the spallation of the nuclei that enriches the interstellar medium including lithium and beryllium , detected in abundance in cosmic rays ,
the neutron capture on these nuclei in stars at the end of life, including supernovae , to generate all the elements beyond iron , during the process known as R or S depending on whether they are fast or slow, and capture of fast protons ( RP process ) and photodisintegration ( process P ) with respect to proton rich nuclei (such as 196 Hg ).
The atomic number of an element, denoted Z (with reference to German Zahl ), is equal to the number of protons contained in the nuclei of atoms of this element. For example, all atoms of hydrogen have only one proton, so the atomic number of hydrogen is Z = 1. If all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, they may however have different numbers of neutrons : neutron number of each element defines an isotope of this element.
Atoms are electrically neutral, they count as many electrons , negatively charged, as protons, positively charged, so the atomic number also represents the number of electrons in the atoms of a given element. The chemical properties of an element are determined primarily by its electronic configuration , we understand that the atomic number is the defining characteristic of a chemical element.
The atomic number defines an element completely: knowing the atomic number amounts to knowing the element. This is why it is generally omitted with the chemical symbol, except perhaps to recall the position of the element in the periodic table. When shown, it is positioned at the bottom left of the chemical symbol: Z X.
The mass number of an element, denoted A , is equal to the number of nucleons ( protons and neutrons ) contained in the nuclei of atoms of that element. If all atoms of a given element by definition have the same number of protons, they may however have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers, what are called isotopes . For example, the hydrogen 1 H has three main isotopes: the protium 1 H (hydrogen power, which the nucleus to a proton has no neutrons), the deuterium 2 H (rarer, whose nucleus has one proton, in addition, a neutron) and tritium 3 H ( radioactive and present in the natural state of traces , whose nucleus has two protons to neutrons).
The mass number usually does not affect the chemical properties of atoms, because it does not affect their electronic configuration , an isotope effect can still be observed for light atoms, that is to say, the lithium 3 Li , the helium 2 He and especially the hydrogen 1 H, because the addition or removal of a neutron in the nucleus of such atoms leads to significant relative variation of the mass of the atom, which affects the kinetics of reactions chemical and intensity of chemical bonds . 115 for other items, however, the mass number has practically no influence on their chemical properties.
The mass number does not affect the chemical properties of elements, it is generally omitted with the chemical symbol, except when it comes to separate isotopes. When shown, it is positioned at the top left of the chemical symbol: A X.
The atomic mass unit has been defined by IUPAC in 1961 as being exactly one-twelfth of the mass of the nucleus of an atom of 12 C (carbon 12):
1 u ≈ 1.660538782 (83) × 10 -27 kg ≈ 931.494028 (23) MeV / c 2 .
The rest mass of a nucleon is indeed irrelevant to measure the mass of atoms as protons and neutrons do not have exactly the same rest mass – respectively 938.272013 (23) MeV / c 2 and 939, 565 560 (81) MeV / c 2 – and above this mass differs from that when they are part of an atomic nucleus due to the nuclear binding energy of nucleons, which induces a mass defect between the actual mass of an atomic nucleus and accumulated at rest masses of the nucleons that make up the nucleus.
The atomic mass of an element is equal to the sum of products of mass numbers of its isotopes by their natural abundance . Applied for example to lead, this gives:
Among the most stable isotope 274 known (including 18 isotopes “quasi-stable” or very weakly radioactive), just over 60% (165 nuclides to be exact) consist of an even number of both protons (Z ) and neutrons (N), and just under 1.5% (only four nuclides 9 ) of an odd number of both protons and neutrons, the other nuclides are distributed almost equally (a Just under 20% ) together between Z and N odd, Z odd and N even. Overall, 220 stable nuclides (just over 80% ) have an even number of protons, and only 54 have an odd number, which is an underlying element to the Oddo-Harkins effect , relative to the fact that for Z> 4 (that is to say with the exception of elements from the primordial nucleosynthesis ), the elements of atomic number are even more abundant in the universe than those with Z is odd. This effect is particularly evident in the form of sawtooth curves of abundance of elements by increasing atomic number:
Abundance of elements in the universe .
( in ) Abundance of elements in the crust mainland.
Two atoms which have the same number of neutrons but a different number of protons expressed isotones . This is sort of the notion of reciprocal that of isotope .
This is for example the case of nuclides stable 36 S , 37 Cl , 38 Ar , 39 K and 40 Ca , located on the isotone 20: they all have 20 neutrons, respectively, but 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 protons ; 19 and 21 isotones, in turn, are free of stable isotope .
UUO Has no known isotope of period exceeding 1 minute
80 of the 118 elements of the standard periodic table have at least one stable isotope : these are all elements of atomic number from 1 ( hydrogen ) and 82 ( lead ) except technetium 43 Tc and promethium 61 Pm, which are radioactive .
From the Bismuth 83 Bi, all isotopes of elements are known (at least weakly) radioactive – the isotope 209 Bi has a half life worth a billion times the age of the universe . When the period exceeds four million years, the radioactivity produced by these isotopes is negligible and does not constitute a health risk: this is for example the case of uranium-238 , whose period is nearly 4.5 billion years.
Beyond Z = 110 ( darmstadtium 281 Ds) , all isotopes of elements have a half life of less than 30 seconds , and less than a tenth of a second from the element 115 (ununpentium 288 Uup) .
The shell model of nuclear structure can account for the greater or lesser stability of atomic nuclei according to their composition in nucleons ( protons and neutrons ). In particular, the ” magic numbers “of nucleons, giving stability to the particular atoms that are composed, have been observed experimentally and explained by this model 10 . The lead 208 , which is the heaviest stable nuclei existing, is composed of the magic number of 82 protons and neutron magic number of 126.
Some theories 11 extrapolate these results by predicting the existence of an island of stability among the nuclides superheavy, for a “magic number” of 184 neutrons and – according to the theories and models – 114 , 120 , 122 or 126 protons.
A more modern approach to nuclear stability shows, however, by calculations based on the tunnel effect , that if such superheavy nuclei doubly magic would likely be stable in terms of spontaneous fission , but they should also undergo α decay with a half-life of microseconds 12 , 13 , 14 , an island of relative stability might still be around darmstadtium 293, corresponding to nuclides defined by Z between 104 and 116 and N between 176 and 186: these elements could have isotopes with half-lives of up to a few minutes.
Example of isomerism : the tantalum 179
Isomer Excitation energy Period Spin
A single atomic nucleus can sometimes exist in several distinct energy states, each characterized by a spin and excitation energy individuals. The state corresponding to the level of lowest energy is called ground state : this is where there are naturally all nuclides . The higher energy states, if they exist, are called nuclear isomers of the isotope considered and are generally very unstable and result mostly of a radioactive decay .
Note the nuclear isomers by appending the letter “m” – for ” metastable “- the isotope in question: and the aluminum 26 , whose nucleus has a spin 5 + and is radioactive with a period of 717,000 years, has an isomer, denoted 26m Al , characterized by a spin 0 +, excitation energy of 6 345.2 k eV and a period of 6.35 s .
If there are multiple levels of excitement for this isotope, we denote each of them by following the letter “m” with a serial number, and the isomers of tantalum 179 shown in the table below cons.
Isomer A nuclear drops back to its ground state by undergoing isomeric transition , resulting in the emission of photons energy X-rays or γ rays , corresponding to the excitation energy.
Nuclear isomers of interest
Some nuclear isomers are particularly noteworthy:
The technetium-99m is used in medicine for its emission of photons of 141 k eV corresponding to X-rays commonly used in radiology .
The hafnium 178m2 is both very energetic and quite stable, with a period of 31 years, and some scientists 15 , the isomeric transition to the ground state could be triggered by an X-ray incident (the phenomenon of induced gamma emission ), which would pave the way for the accumulation to very high energy density, and the pursuit of weapons of mass destruction compact new generation.
The tantalum 180m1 has the distinction of being stable over at least 10 15 years (nearly 75 000 times the age of the universe ), what is more remarkable than the ground state of the isotope 180 Ta is, however, very unstable: the 180m Ta is the only isomer present in the nuclear environment, the mechanism of its formation in supernovae is also poorly understood.
The thorium 229m is perhaps known isomer with the lowest excitation energy, only a few electron volts : this energy is so low that it is difficult to measure, the most recent estimate placing it at about 7, 6 ± 0.5 eV 16 , while a consensus to put the older 3.5 ± 1.0 eV 17 . This corresponds to photons in the ultraviolet , and, if it were possible to excite the isotope 229 Th with a laser ultraviolet of wavelength appropriate, this would make it possible to produce batteries with high energy density, perhaps even of atomic clocks accurately.
The americium-242m , like tantalum 180m1, more stable than its ground state ; its critical mass of several kilograms would make a possible nuclear fuel for space applications of propulsion by fission fragments .
Main article: allotrope .
The diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon .
The same chemical element can form more simple substances differing only from each other by the arrangement of atoms in molecules or crystal structures that define them. The carbon exists as well as graphite in crystal system hexagonal form diamond tetrahedral structure to form graphene corresponding to a single sheet of hexagonal graphite, or the form fullerene or carbon nanotube can be thought of as graphene sheets tubular and spherical respectively. These different forms of carbon are called allotropes of this element. Similarly, the ozone O 3 and oxygen O 2 are allotropes of the element oxygen .
( in ) Phase diagram of simplified carbon .
Each allotrope of an element can only exist in a range of temperatures and pressures defined, what is a phase diagram . Thus, the carbon crystallizes as diamond by being subjected to high pressures, the diamond remained stable until ambient pressure when crystallized at ambient pressure, however, gives the carbon graphite, not diamond.
Of all the allotropes of an element that can exist in normal conditions of temperature and pressure , the standard state is, by definition, one that the standard enthalpy of formation is the lowest, conventionally defined as zero. That of carbon is graphite , and that of the oxygen is oxygen , commonly known why oxygen by confusing it with the element it is the standard state .